The Tenth Guru : Guru Gobind Singh Ji Maharaj
Guru Gobind Singh Ji
Guru Gobind Singh Ji in Punjabi language ਗੁਰੂ ਗੋਬਿੰਦ ਸਿੰਘ and in Marathi: गुरु गोबिंद सिंघ was born in 22 December 1666 and dead in 7 October 1708, He was the Tenth Guru Sikh Gurus. Born in Patna sahib , Bihar in India, he was also a soldier, Poet and a great Philosopher. He succeeded his Father Guru Tegh Bahadur sahib ji as the Leader of Sikhs at the young age of 9th. Guru Gobind Singh Ji contributed a great deal to Sikhism; distinguished was his contribution to the continual formalization of the faith which the First Sikh Guru Ji Guru Nanak had founded, because a religion, in the 15th century. Guru Gobind Singh ji, the last of the living Sikh Gurus, initiated the Sikh Khalsa in 1699, passing Guruship of Sikhs to the Eternal Guru of Sikhs, The Guru Granth Sahib Ji.
Beginning of Khalsa through Guru Gobind Singh Ji
Keshgarh Sahib at Anandpur Sahib( Punjab)is the birthplace of Khalsa
An writing naming the five members of the Khalsa Panth, at Takht Keshgarh Sahib, birthplace of Khalsa on Baisakh 1, 1756 Vikram Samvat.
In 1699, Guru sent hukmanamas (letters of power) to his followers, requesting them to congregate at Anandpur on 13 April 1699, the day of Vaisakhi (the annual harvest fair). Guru Gobind Singh Ji addressed congregation from the entrance of a small tent pitched on a small mount (now called Kesgarh Sahib). He first asked everybody who he was for them? Everyone answered – “You are our Guru.” He then asked them who were they, to which everybody replied – “We are your Sikhs.” Having reminded them of this connection, He then said that today the Guru needs amazing from his Sikhs. Everyone said, “Hukum Karo, Sache Patshah” (Order us, True Lord). Then drawing his sword he asked for volunteer who was ready to sacrifice his head. Not a single person answered his first call, nor the second call, but on the third call, Daya Ram (later known as Bhai Daya Singh) came forward and offered his head to Guru sahib. Guru Gobind Rai took the volunteer inside tent. The Guru returned to the multitude with blood dripping from his sword. He then demanded another head. One more volunteer came onward, and entered the tent with him. The Guru again emerged with blood on his sword. This happened three times. Then the five volunteers came out of the display area in new clothing uninjured.
Guru Gobind Singh after that poured clear water into an iron bowl and adding Patashas (Punjabi sweeteners) into it, Guru Ji stirred it with double-edged sword accompanied with recitations as of Adi Granth. He called this combination of sweetened water and iron as Amrit (“nectar”) and administered it to the five men. These five, who freely volunteered to sacrifice their lives for their Guru, were given the name of the Panj Piare (“the five beloved ones”) by their Guru. They were the 1st (baptized) Sikhs of Khalsa: Bhai Daya Singh, Bhai Dharam Singh, Bhai Himmat Singh, Bhai Mohkam Singh), and Bhai Sahib Singh).
Guru Gobind Singh after that recited a line which has been the rallying-cry of the Khalsa since after that: ‘Waheguru ji ka Khalsa, Waheguru ji Ki Fateh’ (Khalsa belongs to spirit; victory belongs to God). He gave them all name “Singh” (lion), and chosen them collectively as the Khalsa, the body of baptized Sikhs. The Guru then wordless the five and the whole assembly as he knelt and asked them to in turn begin him as a member, on an equal footing by means of them in the Khalsa, thus becoming the sixth member of the new organize. His name became Gobind Singh.
Today members of Khalsa think Guru Gobind as their father, and Mata Sahib Kaur as their mother. The Panj Piare were therefore the first baptised Sikhs, and became the first members of Khalsa brotherhood. Women were too initiated into the Khalsa, and given the title of kaur (“princess”).Guru Gobind Singh then addressed the viewers -
From at the present on, you have become casteless. No ritual, either Hindu or Muslim, will you execute nor will you believe in superstition of any kind, but only in one God who is the master and guardian of all, the only creator and destroyer. In your new order, lowest will grade with the highest and each will be to the additional a bhai (brother). No pilgrimages for you any extra, nor austerities but the clean life of the household, which you should be ready to sacrifice at the call of Dharma. Women shall be equal of men in every way. No purdah (veil) for them any longer, nor the burning alive of a widow on pyre of her spouse (sati). He who kills his daughter, Khalsa shall not deal with him.
Final Days Of Guru Gobind Singh Ji
Takht Sri Hazur Sahib, Nanded, built over the position where Guru Gobind Singh was cremated in 1708, the internal chamber is still called Angitha Sahib.
Wazir Khan, the Nawab of Sirhind, felt nervous about any conciliation between Guru Gobind Singh and Bahadur Shah I. He specially made two Pathans, Jamshed Khan and Wasil Beg, assassinate the Guru. The two secretly pursued t Guru and got opportunity to attack him at Nanded.
According to Sri Gur Sobha through the contemporary writer Senapati, Jamshed Khan stabbed Guru in the left side below the heart at the same time as he was resting in his chamber after the Rehras prayer. Guru Gobind Singh ji killed the attacker with his Talwar (traditional Sikh curved sword), while the attacker’s companion tried to run away but was killed by Sikhs who had rushed in on inquiry the noise.
The European doctor sent by Bahadur Shah stitched the Guru’s injury. However, the wound re-opened and caused plentiful bleeding, as the Guru tugged at a solid strong bow after a few days. Seeing his end was near, the Guru affirmed the Guru Granth Sahib as the next Guru of the Sikhs. Guru Ji then sang his self-composed hymn:
“Ageya bhai Akal ki tabhi chalayoo Panth Sabh Sikhan ko hukam hai Guru Maneyoo Granth, Guru Granth Ji manyoo pargat Guran ki deh Jo Prabh ko milbo chahe khoj shabad mein lai Raj karega Khalsa aaqi rahei na koe Khwar hoe sabh milange bache sharn jo hoe.”
Translation of the above:
“Under instructions of Immortal Being, the Panth was created. All the Sikhs are enjoined to believe the Granth as their Guru. Consider the Guru Granth as embodiment of Gurus. Those who want to meet God, can find Him in its hymns. The Khalsa shall ruling, and impure will no more, Those separated will join and all the devotees shall be saved.”
The Guru allegedly left the visible body, along with his horse Dilbagh (aka Neela Ghora) at 7 October 1708 at Nanded, earlier than which Guru Gobind Singh Ji had declared the Guru Granth Sahib ji as his successor.